A Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO)-hosted expert meeting was held in Japan on 27 October 2019, which comprised experts from the JSCO, the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), and the Taiwan Oncology Society (TOS). The purpose of the meeting was to focus on what we have learnt from both microsatellite instability (MSI)/deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) biomarkers in predicting the efficacy of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy, and the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusions in predicting the efficacy of inhibitors of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) proteins across a range of solid tumour types. The recent regulatory approvals of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab and the TRK inhibitors larotrectinib and entrectinib, based on specific tumour biomarkers rather than specific tumour type, have heralded a paradigm shift in cancer treatment approaches. The purpose of the meeting was to develop international expert consensus recommendations on the use of such tumour-agnostic treatments in patients with solid tumours. The aim was to generate a reference document for clinical practice, for pharmaceutical companies in the design of clinical trials, for ethics committees in the approval of clinical trial protocols and for regulatory authorities in relation to drug approvals, with a particular emphasis on diagnostic testing and patient selection.