Introduction: - The objective of this publication is to recall the initial oncological management of adrenal incidentalomas.
Material & methods: - The multidisciplinary working group updated french urological guidelines established by the CCAFU in 2018, based on an exhaustive literature review carried out on PubMed.
Results: - Although the majority of the adrenal masses are benign and non-functional, it is important to investigate them, as a percentage of these can cause serious endocrine diseases or be cancers. Malignant adrenal tumors are mainly represented by Adrenocortical Carcinomas (ACC), malignant pheochromocytomas (MPC) and adrenal metastases (AM). The malignancy assessment of an adrenal incident includes a complete history, a physical examination, a biochemical / hormonal assessment to look for subclinical hormonal secretion. Diagnostic hypotheses are sometimes available at this stage, but it is the morphological and functional imaging and the histological analysis which will make it possible to close the malignancy assessment and make the oncological diagnosis.
Conclusions: - AC and MPC are mainly sporadic but a hereditary origin is always possible. ACC is suspected preoperatively but the diagnosis of certainty is histological. The diagnosis of MPC is more delicate and is based on clinic, biology and imagery. The diagnosis of certainty of AM requires a percutaneous biopsy. At the end, the files must be discussed within the COMETE - adrenal cancer network (Appendix 1).