The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting was established to internationally unify and standardize the pathologic reporting of cancers based on collected evidence, as well as to allow systematic data collection across institutions and countries to guide cancer care in the future. An expert panel was convened to identify the minimum data set of elements that should be included in cancer reporting from tumors of the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Specifically, there has been a significant change in practice as a result of identifying oncogenic viruses, including human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus, because they preferentially affect the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively. For these anatomic sites, when viral association is taken into account, usually reported elements of in situ versus invasive tumor, depth of invasion, and degree of differentiation are no longer applicable. Thus, guidance about human papillomavirus testing in oropharyngeal carcinomas and Epstein-Barr virus testing in nasopharyngeal carcinomas is highlighted. Further, the clinical and the pathologic differences in staging as proposed by the 8th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control are incorporated into the discussion, pointing out several areas of continued study and further elaboration. A summary of the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting guidelines for oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal carcinomas is presented, along with discussion of the salient evidence and practical issues.