Purpose This is an official guideline, published and coordinated by the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG) and the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Vaginal cancers are rare tumors, which is why there is very little evidence on these tumors. Knowledge about the optimal clinical management is limited. This first German S2k guideline on vaginal cancer has aimed to compile the most current expert knowledge and offer new recommendations on the appropriate treatment as well as providing pointers about individually adapted therapies with lower morbidity rates than were previously generally available. The purpose of this guideline is also to set up a register to record data on treatment data and the course of disease as a means of obtaining evidence in future. Methods The present S2k guideline was developed by members of the Vulvar und Vaginal Tumors Commission of the AGO in an independently moderated, structured, formal consensus process and the contents were agreed with the mandate holders of the participating scientific societies and organizations. Recommendations To optimize the daily care of patients with vaginal cancer: 1. Monitor the spread pattern; 2. Follow the step-by-step diagnostic workup based on initial stage at detection; 3. As part of individualized clinical therapeutic management of vaginal cancer, follow the sentinel lymph node protocol described here, where possible; 4. Participate in the register study on vaginal cancer.