Vaginal cancer is a rare occurrence. Since November 2018 the S2k guidelines for the treatment are freely available from the homepage of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). Due to the lack of case numbers and studies, these guidelines are essentially based on expert opinions of the committee on the vulva and vagina of the Working Group for Gynecological Oncology (AGO) and methodologically on the consensus process of the AWMF. As no randomized studies can be expected in the foreseeable future, healthcare research generating knowledge on this rare oncological entity should be carried out with the assistance of a national interdisciplinary cancer register for vaginal cancer. The short form of the guidelines presented in this article provide the framework conditions for the diagnostics, treatment and aftercare.