Primary vaginal carcinoma is rare. There are two pathogenetic pathways, one associated with HPV high-risk infection and another one with inactivation of p53. Vaginal Paget's disease is rare and mostly associated with vulvar disease or represents intravaginal spread of associated locoregional cancer. Diagnostic vaginal biopsies should be examined by step sections on H&E. Sentinel lymph nodes should be processed completely using ultrastaging. Morphology-based prognostic factors with good clinical evidence are tumour stage and lymph node status. Molecular markers are not currently relevant for treatment decision and prognosis.