For cord blood transplantation (CBT), appropriate patient and conditioning regimen selection is necessary to achieve long-term disease-free survival. This review aims to provide comprehensive guidelines on these issues using evidence from the literature and experience at dedicated CBT centers. Topics include patient and disease characteristics that make CBT a good or poor choice and a review of outcomes in commonly used conditioning regimens in CBT. This is accompanied with recommendations on regimen intensity based on disease, organ function, and patient performance status and age. In addition, the use of antithymocyte globulin in CBT is discussed, as is the choice of conditioning in aplastic anemia patients who have access to acceptable CB units.