People with HIV (PWH) and AIDS have a higher incidence of many common cancers compared with the general population. AIDS-defining cancers include aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Kaposi sarcoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Dramatically improved treatment of HIV over the last two decades has led to a decrease in the risk of AIDS development, an increase in immune function and survival, and a decline in AIDS-defining cancers in this population. Aging due to longer life expectancy with antiretroviral therapy (ART), co-infection with oncogenic infections, and a higher prevalence of carcinogen exposure (eg, tobacco, alcohol) have led to increased incidence of many non–AIDS-defining cancers.• PWH who develop cancer should be co-managed by an oncologist and HIV specialist and should receive cancer treatment as per standard guidelines. Although modifications to ART may be needed, HIV therapy should be continued during cancer therapy. Multidisciplinary decision-making, involving HIV specialists, is critical.