Rapid advancements in next-generation sequencing (ngs) technology have created an unprecedented opportunity to decipher the molecular profile of tumours to more effectively prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. Oncologists now have the option to order molecular tests that can guide treatment decisions. However, to date, most oncologists have received limited training in genomics, and they are now faced with the challenge of understanding how such tests and their interpretation align with patient management. Guidance on how to effectively use ngs technology is therefore needed to aid oncologists in applying the results of genomic tests. The Canadian guideline presented here describes best practices and unmet needs related to ngs-based testing for somatic variants in oncology, including clinical application, assay and sample selection, bioinformatics and interpretation of reports performed by laboratories, patient communication, and clinical trials.